THE LEG RELATIVE TO THE PANT
The leg performs a variety of functions, such as walking, running, bending, squatting, and sitting. Whenever the leg moves or the knee bends, the muscles and skin of the lower torso increase and decrease in length. The illustrations show where and when the body increases and decreases in length due to movement. If a garment is to fit comfortably and hang well on the figure, the pant must not hinder the actions of the leg.
To ensure the pant fits well, measurements must be taken with care and accuracy Each pant foundation pattern should be cut in a firm fabric (not a knit). The foundation pattern should be corrected before being used for designs; otherwise, fitting errors will be passed on to all designs based on it.
The following terms relate to the pant draft, the human figure, and the pant garment. The illustration links terms and locations.
Bifurcated. Divided into two parts (right and left sides).
Crotch. Base of torso where legs join the body.
Crotch depth. The distance from waist to base of crotch of the figure.
Rise. A tailor’s term referring to the crotch depth.
Crotch length. A measurable distance from the center front waist, around the crotch base, to the center back waist.
Crotch extension. An extension of the crotch line at center front and back center lines that provides coverage for the inside part of the leg.
Crotch point. End of the crotch extension.
Crotch level. Dividing line separating torso from leg line of the pant. (The total width across the pant from the front crotch point to the back crotch point.)
Out seam. Side seam joining the front and back pant.
Inseam. Seam between the legs joining the front and back pant.
ANALYSIS OF THE PANT FOUNDATIONS
Pant foundations are determined by the length of the crotch extensions. Long extensions fit loosely around the crotch level and short extensions fit closer. The foundation part of the pant covers the waist to crotch level, and the pant styles (silhouettes) start at crotch level and end at the hem.
Crotch extensions provide the portion of the pant that covers the inside part of the leg. The length of the extension is determined by (1) the foundation desired, (2) the percentage of the front and back hip measurement, and (3) the upper thigh measurement.
Analyse and compare the following four pant foundations. Each pant foundation fits the abdomen and buttocks in a special way. Aside from the leg line styles, how do they differ?
Culotte – Hangs away from abdomen and buttocks
Trouser – Hangs straight from abdomen and buttocks
Slack – Cups slightly under abdomen and buttocks
Jean – Contours abdomen and buttocks
SUMMARY OF THE PANT FOUNDATIONS
A pant has two identities: its foundation (the part above crotch level) and its leg line (the style below the crotch level). There are four major pant foundations, characterised by the hang of the pant from the abdomen and buttocks: The culotte hangs away, the trouser hangs straight, the slack cups, and the jean contours the abdomen and buttocks areas.
The foundation of a pant is controlled by the length of the front and back crotch extensions. The extensions are based on a percentage of the front and back hip measurements, with consideration of the upper thigh measurement.
Formula for Crotch Extension
Culotte: Back—one-half of back hip, plus 3/4 inch , Front—one-half of front hip, minus 3/4 inch
Trouser: Back—one-half of back hip , Front—one-fourth of front hip
Slack: Back—one-half of back hip, minus 3/4 inch , Front—one-fourth of front hip
Jean: Back—one-fourth of back hip for contour fit, one-third of back hip, minus 1/2 inch for close fit , Front—2 inches (subtract 1/8 inch for sizes under 10 and add 1/8 inch for each size over 14)
Crotch level: The distance from the front crotch point to the side seam and from back crotch point to side seam should measure greater than the upper thigh measurement at least by the amounts that follow
Trouser: 3 1/2 inches more
Slack: 2 1/4 inches more
Jean: 1 to 1 1/2 inches for contour fit and about 2 inches for a relaxed fit
Crotch length: The crotch length should measure at least the same as the form or figure. If it does not, add the needed amount to the chosen pattern as indicated
Slack: Pitch the back pant and extend the back crotch point equally.
Trouser: Extend front and back crotch points equally.
The test fit should be cut in a firm fabric and not in a knit. Put the stitched pant on the figure or form with a waist band and a back zipper for the foundation fit.
MEASURING FOR THE PANT DRAFT
To draft a pant for a personal fit, use the instructions that follow. If the waist, hip, abdominal, and hip depth measurements have already been taken and recorded on the measurement chart, use them. Otherwise, take the circumference measurement of the waist and hip. Divide each measurement by 4 and modify as follows:
Example: Waist 26″ / 4 = 6 1/2″
Add 1/4″= 6 3/4″ front waist Subtract 1/4″= 6 1/4″ back waist Hip 38″ / 4 = 9 1/2″
Subtract 1/4″= 9 1/4″ front hip Add 1/4″= 9 3/4″ back hip
When it first became fashionable for women to ride bicycles, it was unfashionable (even improper) for them to wear pants. A garment was needed that was both functional and ladylike. This led to the development of the culotte (then known as the divided skirt), which provided the wearer with maximum mobility. The skirt like pant was acceptable for the mores of that period. So successful and practical was the culotte that it became a fashion item as a style for both casual and dressy garments. It continues to be an important fashion item.
The culotte foundation is developed from a basic A-line skirt; however, any skirt design can be adapted into a skirt like pant by following the instructions given. The foundation is used as a base for the traditional box-pleated culotte and for designs with varying lengths and wide-sweeping hemlines.
Crotch depth plus 3/4 inch (varies to 1 1/4 inches).
One-half of the front and back culotte are drafted.
Patterns needed: Front and back A-line skirt and waist band;
To allow for crotch extensions, place patterns at least 8 inches from paper’s edge. Trace front and back skirt. Include all markings.
A–B = crotch depth plus 3/4 (or more) inch
A–X = one-half of A–B less 1/2 inch. Mark.
B–C = one-half of basic front hip, less 3/4 inch, squared from B.
D–E = B–C, squared from D. Connect C with E.
B–b = 1 1/2-inch diagonal line.
Draw the crotch with a curve, touching C and b and ending at or near X-point. Modify the curve if you are unable to touch b.
F–G = D–B (of front pattern).
G–H = one-half of back basic hip plus 3/4 inch, squared from G.
F–J = G–H, squared from F. Connect J with H.
G–X = B–X (of front pattern). Mark.
G–g = 1 3/4-inch diagonal line. Draw the crotch curve beginning near H to g and ending at or near the X-point.
The trouser is a pant that hangs straight downward from the outermost part of the abdomen and buttocks. It fits closer to the body than does a culotte because the front crotch extension is shorter. This pant may be worn in its present form or modified for other pant designs, such as the pleated trouser, and the baggy . It is also used as a base for pant derivatives such as the shorts, the Jamaica, the Bermuda, and the pedal-pusher.
Waist to ankle
Front hip arc
Back hip arc
Front waist arc
Back waist arc
A–B = waist to ankle (pant length).
A–D = crotch depth plus 3/4-inch ease (varies).
D–C = hip depth: one-third of D–A.
B–E = knee depth: one-half of B–D plus 1 inch (toward crotch level).
Square out from both sides of A, B, C, D, and E.
C–F = back hip plus 1/4 inch (ease).
D–G = same as C–F.
A–H = same as C–F. Connect G with H.
G–X = one-half of G–H.
G–I = one-half of G–D.
C–J = front hip plus 1/4 inch (ease).
D–K = same as C–J.
A–L = same as C–J. Connect K with L.
K–X = one-half of K–L.
K–M = one-fourth of K–D.
Back Dart Intake
H–N = 3/4 inch. Mark.
N–O = waist measurement, plus 2 1/4 inches.
N–P = 3 inches. Mark 1-inch intake for each dart and space 1 1/4 inches apart.
Mark centers of each dart and square down 4 1/2 inches.
Front Dart Intake
L–Q = waist measurement, plus 1 1/4 inches.
L–R = 3 inches. Mark 1/2-inch intake for each dart and space 1 1/4 inches apart.
Mark ccentresof each dart and square down 3 inches.
N–S = 1/4 inch squared up from N. Draw line from S to X to crotch level.
G–T = 2-inch diagonal line (less 1/8 to 1/4 inch for sizes under 10).
Draw the crotch curve from I to X, touching or blending at T.
K–U = 1 1/2-inch diagonal line.
Draw the crotch curve from M to X, touching or blending at U.
Back and Front Waistlines
- Draw a slight inward curved line from S to O
- Draw a slight inward curved line from 1/4 inch below L to Q
- Draw dart legs to the waistline and true by adding to shorter legs
- Draw hip curves just above C to O and to Q
D–V = one-half of D–I, plus 1/4 inch. Square up and down from V (grain line).
D–W = one-half of D–M, plus 1/4 inch. Square up and down from W (grain line).
- Mark hemline widths (1/2 inch less for sizes under 10).
- Out seams: Draw straight lines from ankle marks to C (blend with hip line).
- Inseams: Mark 1/2 inch in from M and L and draw straight lines to ankle marks . Draw inward curved lines from I and M, blending close to knee level.
- Walk the seams, blend, and add seam allowance
- Option: Equalise side hipline
- Measure the distance between O and Q. Divide in half and mark out from A equally. Draw an adjusted side seam. Broken lines depict the original side seam.
The slack foundation fits closer to the figure that does the trouser because of shorter crotch extensions. The shortened extension causes a slight cupping under the buttocks, creating the slack’s unique fit. Pant designs based on the slack have a classic appeal to most women, especially those who are uncomfortable in the loose trouser and the contour-fitted jean. The slack foundation is very versatile. It may be worn as drafted or adapted to countless other pant designs. It is a popular base for pant derivatives, such as the short, Jamaica, and the pedal-pusher
Trace the front and back trouser, omitting darts closest to the side seam. Modify the pattern using illustration and measurements as a guide
Shaded areas indicate parts of the pattern that are cut away
Broken lines indicate original pattern
Bold lines indicate slack foundation.
Walk seams and add seam allowance
The name derivatives, when associated with pants, describes the various pant lengths that differ from the original source. The following pant lengths have changed little over time. The given names for traditional pant lengths still apply; however, designers do assign “hip” names to describe pant lengths for fashion excitement. Pant lengths depend largely on fashion trends, the type of activity, and the four seasons.
Names and Terms
Short shorts. 1 1/2 inches below the crotch of the inseam and 1 to 1 1/2 inches above the crotch at the side seam.
Shorts. 2 inches below crotch level.
Jamaica. Halfway between the crotch and knee.
Bermuda. Halfway between Jamaica and knee.
Pedal-pusher. 2 inches down from the knee.
Toreador. Halfway between the knee and ankle.
Capri. 1 inch above the ankle.
Trace the pant to the Jamaica length and taper the legline.
The jean foundation is drafted with a short front and back crotch extension for pants that contour the figure. The shortened extension results in a loss of crotch length; therefore, the center back draft is extended (pitched) beyond the waist level to make up the crotch length measurement . The jean foundation is as versatile as other pant foundations.
- (27) Waist to ankle
- (24) Crotch depth
- (23) Front hip arc Back hip arc
- (19) Front waist arc Back waist arc .
- (29) Upper thigh plus 1-1/4″
A–B = waist to ankle (pant length.)
A–D = crotch depth. (Subtract 1/4 inch for higher crotch.)
D–C = hip depth: one-third of D–A.
B–E = knee depth: one-half of B–D plus 1 inch (toward D). Square out from both sides of A, B, C, D, and E
C–F = back hip, plus 1/8 inch (ease).
D–G = same as C–F.
A–H = same as C–F. Connect G with H.
G–X = one-half of G–H.
G–I = one-fourth of hip G-D for a contour fit. Add 1 inch more to the measurement for a relaxed fit.
C–J = front hip, plus 1/8 inch (ease).
D–K = same as C–J.
A–L = same as C–J.
Connect K with L.
K–X = One-half of K–L plus 1/2 inch (toward L). K–M = 2 inches.
Add 1/4 inch for sizes over 14; subtract 1/8 inch for sizes under 10.
Waist and Dart Intake
If points O and R meet or overlap point A, don’t be alarmed. Adjustment will be made later.
H–N = 1 3/4 inches.
N–O = back waist arc, plus 1 inch (dart and ease included).
N–P = one-half of N–O.
Square down 3 1/2 inches from P. Measure out 3/8 inch from each side of P, and mark.
L–Q = 1/2 inch.
Q–R = front waist arc, plus 3/4 inch (dart and ease included).
Q–S = 3 1/4 inches.
Square down 2 1/2 inches from S. Measure out 1/4 inch from each side of S and mark.
N–T = 1 inch squared up from N. Draw line from T through X to crotch level.
G–g = 1 3/4-inch diagonal line.
Draw a curve with a ruler touching X and g, at or near I. Blend at g, if necessary.
Q–U = 1/4 inch squared up from Q.
Draw a line from U through X to crotch level.
K–k = 1 1/4-inch diagonal line.
Draw a curve with a ruler touching X, k, and M . Blend at k
Back and Front
- Draw slightly curved line from T to O and U to R
- Draw dart legs from dart points to curve of the waistline.
- True dart legs by adding to the shorter leg . Blend with the side waist.
- Draw hip curves just above C to O and C to R.
D–V = 3/8 inch. Mark.
V–W = one-half of V–I. Square up and down from W (grainline).
D–Y = 3/8 inch. Mark. Y–Z = one-half of Y–M.
Square up and down from Z (grainline.)
Use measurements for pant width at knee and ankle (adjust at the fitting). Hips 44 inches or more: Add 3/4 inch to the measurements. Use curve rule (skirt or hem rule) to shape the inseam and out seam,